throughout human history there have been many attempts with varying success to devise writing systems. The earliest were not speech related, but recorded trade and legal transactions. But all the systems in use today are derived from the alphabet in the middle East, or the Tibeto-Chinese pictograms. Both were invented aroudn 1700 BC, which is interesting.
The alphabet was based on the principle of each sign corresponding to a vocal sound, and initially used for Semitic languages which developed into Arabic and Hebrew, then Indo-European and now used for Romance, German, Balkan, Slavic, Indian Indonesian and Fino-Hungarian, as well as transliterating the others. Gothic was invented by Bishop Wulfila in the 3rd Century AD in case you were wondering.
The Minoan Civilization on the Island of Crete had several writing systems, two of which were the pictographic systems linear A and B. Linear A has yet to be translated but Linear B was based n the Greek alphabet , used round the palace of Knossos from around 2,000 BC. A fire in the palace of Knossos destroyed the civilization but fired the 4,000 clay tablets written in Linear B, so ensured their survival.