English is different to all other languages because it is a very complex hybrid, hence so many people find it difficult or stupid.
It is basically a Germanic tongue – something like 40% of the dictionary and 60% of what we speak is this simple building block language. Then the Vikings arrived or invaded, depending on whose history you read, so two similar languages co-existed, which seems ot be when the tricky grammar was eroded as in any hybrid language.
The Saxons had no letter ‘k’ so they wore shirts whereas the Vikings wore skirts. But there was more. The Saxons were Christians, so what was up above them was heofan, or heaven, ie where the Christian god – or rather, God – lived, whereas to the Vikings, this was the sky. We still have this distinction, so many words are not duplications, they have different origins, and often retain these ghosts in their meanings.
Then the Normans brought sophistication to the language, just as the French have continued to do. The Saxon words that survived are mostly those of the farmer: erd = earth, kuh = cow, wasser = water. and they left us the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.
The Normans were the wealthy, the rulers, so they left words of interiors, of law, of food, so kuh became boef, or beef. They gave us castles, barbicans, the law, and of course the Domesday Book, a fascinating snapshot of the country at the time, but in reality a gigantic census for taxation purposes.
Christianity had brought Latin to these lands, and later Greek brought ideas of philosophy and science. Sailors brought back tales of the sea, of adventure, of foreign lands. India gave us bungalows, shampoo and pyjamas. Czechs gave us robots, which in South Africa are traffic lights. The language has continued to make space for these new ideas, these new visions of otherness.
This is a gross oversimplification but hopefully gives an idea of why what you are reading is so complicated. English is not a single language. It is now a world language. It is the language of time, of international travel, of the media, of Shakespeare and Jane Austin, and best of all, pop music.